Карты Visa уязвимы перед обычным брутфорсом.

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Исследователи из Ньюкаслского университета представили любопытный доклад (PDF), в котором описали необычный метод атак. Исследователи утверждают, что при помощи распределенного брутфорса можно за считанные секунды подобрать любые данные для карты Visa, в том числе CVV-код и дату истечения срока действия.

Для реализации атаки специалисты изучили топ Alexa и выбрали 400 наиболее популярных онлайн-магазинов. Затем из списка были отсеяны магазины с хорошей защитой, после чего осталось 342 сайта. Теоретически исследователи могли составить куда более обширный список, однако для их эксперимента было достаточно и этого.

Затем ученые вооружились номером работающей банковской карты и попытались подобрать  для нее дату истечения срока действия. Обращаясь к выбранным сайтам, исследователи пытались осуществить транзакцию. Срок «жизни» большинства карт составляет 60 месяцев, и исследователям потребовалось лишь несколько секунд, чтобы разослать всем 342 сайтам запросы с разными комбинациями дат и подобрать нужную. Аналогичный распределенный брутфорс был использован для подбора CVV-кода: так как в CVV-коде всего три цифры, атакующему понадобится сделать не более тысячи предположений.


В своем докладе исследователи отмечают, что привязанным к карте адресом интересуются далеко не все сайты, а правильность ввода имени держателя карты не проверяет вообще никто. При этом специалисты пишут, что злоумышленнику не обязательно искать и покупать где-то информацию о картах, ведь подобрать таким образом можно и сам номер карты, а не только детали.

В среднем на атаку уходит порядка 6 секунд. Видео ниже демонстрирует работу приложения, созданного исследователями, и саму атаку в работе.

Уязвимость перед таким распределенным брутфорсом демонстрируют только платежные карты Visa. Так, Mastercard фиксирует и блокирует множественные запросы, поступающие для одной карты из различных мест (онлайновых магазинов). Также в безопасности владельцы, карт, которые оснащены поддержкой технологии 3D Secure и жители стран, где распространены chip-and-PIN карты.

Исследователи пишут, что 78% сайтов (303 ресурса), использованных для атак, никак не прореагировали на раскрытие информации о данной бреши. Операторы ряда ресурсов все же поспешили обновить защитные механизмы, однако некоторые из этих обновлений сделали лишь хуже, и процедура оформления и оплаты заказа стала еще более небезопасной.

Источник — xakep.ru

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