На конференции показали, что дронов можно сбивать при помощи звука.

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На конференции Usenix Enigma 2017 профессор Корейского института передовых технологий Йонгдае Ким (Yongdae Kim) выступил с докладом, посвященным обману пассивных и активных сенсоров в различных устройствах.

Пассивные сенсоры, вроде гироскопов и магнитометров, попросту оценивают окружающую обстановку и сообщают о своих «наблюдениях» устройству. Активные сенсоры, вроде радаров и сонаров, в свою очередь, посылают вовне сигналы и в своей работе опираются на  показания, полученные с возвращением сигнала. Ким продемонстрировал, что хакнуть можно и те и другие.

Ким на Usenix Enigma 2017

В качестве первого примера исследователь взял гироскопы, которые используются в серийно выпускаемых беспилотниках. Многие материалы имеют так называемую резонансную частоту, которая заставляет их вибрировать (именно так можно спровоцировать «взрыв» стеклянного бокала при помощи очень высокой ноты). Вопрос лишь в подборе нужной частоты. Ким и его команда сумели подобрать нужную частоту для гироскопов 7 из 15 исследованных коммерческих дронов, включая железо STMicro и InvenSense. Частотный диапазон, использованный исследователями, варьируется от звуков, слышимых человеческим ухом, до звуков, неразличимых людьми, но все они проводят к одному результату: дрон падает из-за проблем с гироскопом и гиростабилизатором (inertial measurement unit).

Проблема была наглядно продемонстрирована прямо на сцене, во время доклада. Ким и его ассистент вызвали падение квадрокоптера, «выстрелив» в него звуком на нужной частоте. Видео можно найти здесь. Такая атака требует, чтобы злоумышленник находился достаточно близко, но зону поражения можно расширить, увеличив выходную мощность.

В качестве второго примера были взяты медицинские сенсоры, которые используются в «умных» капельницах (или медицинских инфузионных помпах) и регулируют подачу лекарств. Оказалось, что сбить с толку такой датчик можно при помощи обычной лазерной указки. Если посветить указкой на сенсор, он потеряет возможность оценивать количество капель, поступающих в тело пациента. Ким рассказал, что во время тестов капельницу удалось «обмануть», заставив ее дать пациенту двойную дозу препарата, а также урезать дозу на 45%. Более того, радиус такой атаки ограничен только мощностью лазера, так что единственное условие, которое нужно соблюдать – чтобы сенсор находился в прямой «видимости» луча, а расстояние может быть почти произвольным. В итоге исследователь рекомендовал закрывать прозрачные элементы инфузионных помп хотя бы обычным непрозрачным скотчем.

В конце своей презентации Ким рассказал, что в настоящий момент они с командой продолжают исследования различных датчиков, сконцентрировав усилия на сенсорах, использующихся в беспилотных автомобилях.

 Источник — xakep.ru
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