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TumbleBit делает невозможным определить, кто и кому переводил средства.
Исследователи Бостонского университета, Университета штата Северная Каролина и Университета Джорджа Мейсона разработали новый протокол TumbleBit, способный намного лучше обеспечить анонимность биткойн-транзакций по сравнению с другими «миксерами».
«Миксеры» представляют собой анонимные сервисы, смешивающие на своих счетах биткойны разных пользователей и переводящие их на новые кошельки. Такое смешивание монет существенно затрудняет определение исходного источника и итогового получателя. «Миксеры» пользуются большой популярностью как у ищущих анонимности пользователей, так и у киберпреступников.
Подобные сервисы довольно хорошо обеспечивают анонимность, но все равно оставляют следы в публичном блокчейне. Собранные вместе, следы позволяют восстановить первоначальную транзакцию, хотя для этого потребуется много времени и ресурсов.
Ученые предложили инновационный способ смешивания биткойнов. TumbleBit разделяет биткойн-транзакции на три фазы. Первая фаза называется «Условное депонирование». Пользователь А сообщает сервису о намерении осуществить платеж, но не предоставляет адрес получателя. Пользователь Б в свою очередь сообщает сервису о намерении получить платеж, но не уточняет адрес отправителя.
Во время второй фазы под названием «Оплата» пользователь А отправляет деньги сервису без внесения записи о транзакции в блокчейн. Завершающая третья стадия называется «Обналичивание». Пользователи А и Б решают ряд криптографических задач, затем Б получает деньги, а «миксер» возвращает неиспользованные средства обратно пользователю А.
В публичный блокчейн записываются только первая и третья фазы, тогда как вторая осуществляется по протоколу TumbleBit. Поскольку второй этап не записывается в цепочку блоков, даже оператор «миксера» не знает, кто и кому переводил деньги.
Источник — securitylab.ru
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